Value promotion and europeanisation by EU trade agreements


  • Balazs Horvathy HAS Centre for Social Sciences Institute for Legal Studies



Europeanisation, Common Commercial Policy, values, human rights


Promoting values of the European Union has been on the EU’s external trade agenda since the 1990s. The Treaty of Lisbon established a general framework for values and principles, requiring the Union to pursue these concepts in the whole range of EU external relations, including the Common Commercial Policy (CCP). Therefore, the operation of CCP is governed not only by traderelated concepts such as progressive liberalisation, but it also reflects on non-trade concerns – e.g. protection of human rights, fair trade, or sustainable development – as well. This inclusive character of CCP is anchored also in the new external trade strategy of the European Union (‘Trade for all’), which stresses the importance of trade agreements concluded by EU in promotion of values towards third countries. The paper aims at addressing a conceptual and a procedural question related to this context: First, what kind of values of the European Union integrated in trade agreements can lead to the Europeanisation of domestic legal order of the third countries; and second, how these concepts can be implemented, i.e. how the process of Europeanisation is taking place using the example of the human rights promotion.


ARTS, K.: Integrating Human Rights into Development Cooperation: The Case of the Lomé Convention. Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2000.

BARTELS, L.: The Trade and Development Policy of the European Union. In: European Journal of International Law, 2007/4.

BASEDOW, J.: Zielkonflikte und Zielhierarchien im Vertrag über die Europäische Gemeinschaft. In: Due and others (eds.): Festschri& für Ulrich Everling. Baden-Baden: Nomos, 1995.

BLANKE, H-J. – MANGIAMELI, S. (eds.): The Treaty on European Union (TEU). A Commentary. Wien: Springer, 2013.

BOGDANDY, A.: Grundprinzipien. In: BOGDANDY, A. – BAST, J.: Europäisches Verfassungsrecht: Theoretische und dogmatische Grundzüge. Berlin: Springer-Lehrbuch, 2009, pp. 13–71.

BÖRZEL, T.: Europeanization: How the European Union Interacts with its Member States. In: BULMER, S. and others (eds): The Member States of the European Union. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005, pp. 45–76.

BROBERG, M.: Don’t Mess with the Missionary Man! On the Principle of Coherence, the Missionary Principle and the European Union’s Development Policy. In: CARDWELL, P. J. (ed.): EU External Relations Law and Policy in the Post-Lisbon Era. Wien: Springer, 2012, pp. 181–198.

BROBERG, M.: What is the Direction for the EU’s Development Cooperation After Lisbon? In: European Foreign Affairs Review, 2011/4, pp. 539–557.

BUNGENBERG, M. – HERRMANN, C. (eds.): Common Commercial Policy after Lisbon. In: European Yearbook of International Economic Law, Special issue, 2013.

CREMONA, C.: A Constitutional Basis for Effective External Action? An assessment of the Provisions on EU External Action in the Constitutional Treaty. In: EUI Working Papers no. 2006/30.

CREMONA, M.: Balancing Union and Member State interests: Opinion 1/2008, Choice of Legal Base and the Common Commercial Policy under the Treaty of Lisbon. In: European Law Review, 35, 2010/5., pp. 678–694.

DIMOPOULOS, A.: The common commercial policy after Lisbon: Establishing parallelism between internal and external economic relations? In: Croatian Yearbook of European Law and Policy, 2008/4, pp. 101–129.

FROMAN, M.: A Values-Driven Trade Policy. Speech of U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman of February 18, 2014. Available at:

GRABITZ, E. and others (eds.): Das Recht der Europäischen Union. Art. 21 TEU. München: C.H. Beck, 2011.

KRAJEWSKI, M.: The Reform of the Common Commercial Policy. In Biondi A. and others (eds.): EU Law after Lisbon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, pp. 292–311.

LEGRAND, P.: Public Law, Europeanisation, and Convergence: Can Comparatists Contribute? In: BEAUMONT, P. and others (eds.): Convergence and Divergence in European Public Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002, pp. 225–226.

MÜLLER-GRAFF, P.-C.: Lissabonner Umwertung oder Kontinuität der EU-Vertragsziele? In: Festschrift 50 Jahre ZfRV. 2013, pp. 139–153.

REIMER, F.: Ziele und Zuständigkeiten. Die Funktionen der Unionszielbestimmungen. In: Europarecht, 2003/6, pp. 992–1012.

RENSMANN, T.: Grundwerte im Prozeß der europäischen Konstitutionalisierung. Anmerkungen zur Europäischen Union als Wertegemeinscha$ aus juristischer Perspektive. In: BLUMENWITZ, D. and others (eds.): Die Europäische Union als Wertegemeinschaft. Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, 2005, pp. 49–71.

TIETJE, C.: Die Außenwirtschaftsverfassung der EU nach dem Vertrag von Lissabon. In: Beitrage zum Internationalen Wirtschaftsrecht. Heft 83. Halle: Universität Halle-Wittenberg, 2009.




How to Cite

Horvathy, B. (2017). Value promotion and europeanisation by EU trade agreements. Bratislava Law Review, 1(1), 84–94.