Public Housing in Lands Affected by Natural Hazards
A Comparative Analysis between Italy, Japan, and the USA
Keywords:civil law, comparative law, public housing, natural disasters
In 2016-2017, an earthquake hit central Italy, in particular the Marche region. In 2011, Japan was devastated by the Fukushima nuclear disaster and in 2005 Hurricane Katrina struck the southwest coast of the United States. This work, starting from the analysis of public housing reconstruction process in Italy, will afterwards analyse the legislation adopted by the Japanese and the American governments in the same field. The aim of the work will be, on the one hand, to highlight the best practices adopted by the three governments in public housing buildings reconstruction process and, on the other hand, to understand which policies, used in Japan and in the U.S.A., can be “imported” in the Marche region, as far as public housing reconstruction process is concerned.
Allegranti, I. (2022). ‘The Right to Remain and Produce in your Homeland’ in Light of Article 8 of the European Convention on Human Rights, The European Court of Human Rights Case Law and the Italian Constitution. Athens Journal of Law, 8(3), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.30958/ajl.X-Y-Z DOI: https://doi.org/10.30958/ajl.8-3-7
Bonetti, T. (2014). Diritto amministrativo dell’emergenza e governo del territorio: dalla “collera del drago” al piano della ricostruzione. Rivista Giuridica Dell’edilizia, 4, 126–150.
Bonis, L. De, and Giovagnoli, M. (2019). Terremoti, distruzione/ricostruzione, tradizione/innovazione e comunità locale. Scienze Del Territorio, 7, 12–19. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.13128/sdt-10941
Finger, D. (2015). Post-Disaster Housing Through the Lens of Litigation: The Katrina Housing Justice Docket. Loyola Law Review, 61, 591–621. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=2764272
Giovagnoli, M. (2018). Piccolo dizionario sociale del terremoto. Cromo Edizioni.
Henrici, J., Helmuth, A. S., and Fernandes, R. (2010). Mounting Losses: Women and Public Housing After Hurricane Katrina.
Hirayama, Y. (2017). Reshaping the housing system. Home ownership as a catalyst for social transformation. In Y. Hirayama and R. Ronald (Eds.), Housing and Social Transition in Japan (pp. 15–46). Routledge.
Kobayashi, M. (2016). The Housing Market and Housing Policies in Japan (No. 558; ADBI Working Paper). Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/181404/adbi-wp558.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Koresawa, A. (2012). Main Features of Government’s Initial Response to the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. Journal of Disaster Research, 7(1), 107–115. DOI: https://doi.org/10.20965/jdr.2012.p0107
Koshimura, S., and Shuto, N. (2015). Response to the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami disaster. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 373(2053), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2014.0373 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsta.2014.0373
Kuroishi, I. (2018). Sense of dwelling in disaster relocation Temporary and public recovery housings after the 2011 earthquake in Japan. Proceedings of the 18th International Planning History Society Conference Yokohama, Japan July 15-19 2018, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.7480/iphs.2018.1.2669
Lindsay, B. R., and Nagel, J. C. (2019). Federal Disaster Assistance After Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, Wilma, Gustav, and Ike. Retrieved from https://sgp.fas.org/crs/homesec/R43139.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Marche Regional Council. Laws. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.consiglio.marche.it/banche_dati_e_documentazione/leggi/classificazioni.php?arc=vig&cls=C.2.2 (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Marche regional council. (2018). Pact for Reconstruction and Development of the Marche Region In-depth documentation (p. 34). Istituto Adriano Olivetti. Retrieved from https://www.regione.marche.it/Portals/0/Enti_Locali_Pa/Patto Ricostruzione/Patto per la Ricostruzione e lo Sviluppo della Regione Marche.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
McCarty, M. (2014). Introduction to Public Housing. Retrieved from https://sgp.fas.org/crs/misc/R41654.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Perin, R. C. (2001). I principi come disciplina giuridica del pubblico servizio tra ordinamento interno ed ordinamento europeo. In V. Molaschi and C. Videtta (Eds.), Scritti in onore di Elio Casetta II. (pp. 963–1007). Jovene.
Perlingieri, P. (2011). Introduzione alla problematica della proprietà. Edizioni Scientifiche Italiane.
Perulli, G. (2000). Casa e funzione pubblica. Giuffrè.
Pierre, J. K., and Stephenson, G. S. (2008). After Katrina: A Critical Look at FEMA’s Failure to Provide Housing for Victims of Natural Disasters. Louisiana Law Review, 68(2), 443–495. Retrieved from https://digitalcommons.law.lsu.edu/lalrev/vol68/iss2/6 (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Quigley, B., and Godchaux, S. H. (2015). Locked Out and Torn Down: Public Housing Post Katrina. Bill Quigley Social Justice Advocacy. Retrieved from https://billquigley.wordpress.com/2015/06/08/locked-out-and-torn-down-public-housing-post-katrina-by-bill-quigley-and-sara-h-godchaux/ (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Ranghieri, F., and Ishiwatari, M. (2014). Learning from Megadisasters: Lessons from the Great East Japan Earthquake. The World Bank. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1596/978-1-4648-0153-2
Regione Emilia-Romagna. Earthquake 2012. (2014). ambiente.regione.emilia-romagna.it/it/geologia/sismica/speciale-terremoto
Reconstruction Promotion Committee (2013). Examples of Initiatives aimed at reconstruction. Retrieved from https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/130228_Examples_of_Initiatives.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Regione Marche. (2020) Piano Sociale Regionale 2020-2022. Retrieved from https://www.regione.marche.it/portals/0/Sociale/ProgrammazioneSociale/PianoSoc/PIANO%20SOCIALE%202020-2022%20d_am70_10.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Sastry, N., and Gregory, J. (2014). The Location of Displaced New Orleans Residents in the Year After Hurricane Katrina. Demography, 51(3), 753–775. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-014-0284-y
Seicshnaydre, S. E. (2007). The More Things Change, the More They Stay the Same: In Search of a Just Public Housing Policy Post-Katrina. Tulane Law Review, 81(4), 3–6.
Solinas, M. (1985). Il piano di zona per l’edilizia economica e popolare. CEDAM.
Spanicciati, F. (2017). Emergenza sisma e nuovi strumenti decisionali: la pianificazione delle zone colpite dai terremoti 2016-2017. Istituzioni Del Federalismo, 3, 711–742.
Special commissioner for the 2016 earthquake reconstruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://sisma2016.gov.it/ (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Special commissioner for the 2016 earthquake reconstruction. (2021). La ricostruzione in Italia Centrale a giugno 2021. Retrieved from https://sisma2016.gov.it/wp-content/uploads/2021/08/Rapporto2021def_1.pdf (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Special Office for the Reconstruction of L’Aquila. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://usra.it/ (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Townsend, F. F. (2006). The Federal Response to Hurricane Katrina: Lessons Learned. Retrieved from https://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/reports/katrina-lessons-learned/index.html (accessed on 25.06.2022).
Valle, C. Della, and Mariani, E. (2020). Il confinamento domiciliare nel post-sisma dell’Appennino centrale. Scienze Del Territorio, Special ed, 97–105.
Weesep, J., and Priemus, H. (1999). The dismantling of public housing in the USA. Netherlands Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, 14(1), 3–12. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02496538
Wood, E. (1982). The beautiful beginnings, the failure to learn: Fifty years of public housing in America. National Center for Housing Management.
European Union, Directive on the energy performance of buildings (2010)
Italy, Constitution (1947)
Italy, Decree of the president of the Republic on Implementation of the delegation pursuant to art. 1 of the law no. 382 of 22 July 1975 (1977)
Italy, Decree on Conferral of functions and administrative tasks of the State on the regional and local authorities (1998)
Italy, Act on framework law for the implementation of the integrated system of social interventions and services (2000)
Italy, Constitutional Act on Amendments to the Title V of Part Two of the Constitution (2001)
Italy, Regional law on Reorganization of the regional housing policy system (2005)
Italy, Ministerial Decree Definition of public housing for the purpose of exemption from the obligation to notify State aid, pursuant to Articles 87 and 88 of the Treaty establishing the European Community (2008)
Italy, Regional law on tourist accommodation structures and regulations on tourist enterprises (2014)
Italy, Decree on Urgent interventions in favor of the populations hit by the 2016 seismic events (2016)
Italy, Ordinance of the Head of the Civil Protection Department on First urgent civil protection interventions following the exceptional seismic event that has hit the territory of the Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Abruzzo regions on 24 August 2016 (2016).
Italy, Ordinance of the Head of the Civil Protection Department on Further consequent urgent civil protection interventions following the exceptional seismic event that hit the territory of the Regions Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Abruzzo on 24 August 2016 (2016)
Italy, Marche regional council Resolution on Programming 2014-2020 of the Internal Areas - Approval of the strategy proposal and the intervention proposals connected to it from the pilot internal area of the lower Apennines of Pesarese and Anconetano (2016)
Italy, CIPE Resolution, Notice for the collection of expressions of interest to participate in the "Integrated social housing program" (2017)
Italy, Decree on Urgent provisions for economic growth in the South (2017)
Italy, Ordinance on Measures relating to the restoration of public buildings which may be used for residential purposes (2017)
Italy, Act on Budget (2018)
Italy, Resolution of the Council of Ministers on extension of the state of emergency as a result of the exceptional seismic events that hit the territory of the Lazio, Marche, Umbria and Abruzzo Regions on 24 August 2016, 26 and 30 October 2016, and 18 January 2017, as well as the exceptional meteorological phenomena that affected the territories of the same regions starting from the second decade of January 2017 (2018)
Italy, Regional law on Amendments and additions to the regional law on Reorganization of the regional system of housing policies and the regional law on Amendments and additions to the regional law on Reorganization of the regional system of housing policies (2018)
Italy, Marche regional council resolution on Pact for reconstruction (2018)
Italy, Ordinance on Second public works programme on the rebuilding of public buildings susceptible to housing use (2020)
Italy, Decree of the Ministry of Transports and Infrastructures on the Allocation of resources for social housing interventions in the territories damaged by the earthquakes of 24 August 2016, 26 October 2016, 30 October 2016, of 18 January 2017 and 21 August 2017 and definition of the criteria for the financing of the interventions and the implementation and monitoring of the post-earthquake reconstruction programme (100 million) pursuant to the resolutions Cipe n. 127/2017 of 22 December 2017 and n. 55/2019 of 24 July 2019 (2020)
Italy, Regional Decree of the Urban Planning and Landscape director on the 2017 CIPE Resolution CIPE n. 127/2017 - D.M. 6.07.2020 - DGR n. 483 of 20.04.2021. Interventions of public housing in the territories damaged by the earthquakes 2016-2017. Approval notice for expression of interest and relative forms. Expenses commitment € 30.000.000,00 on chapters No. 2080220057 and 2080220058, budget 2021/2023 (2021)
Italy, Regional Council Resolution for a proposal of resolution about the Regional Council Resolution concerning the Regional Law 36/2005, Artt. 5, 6 bis and 20 septiesdecies: Regional Plan on Social Housing (years 2014-2016) (2014)
Italy, Explanatory note protocol n. 44398 of the Civil Protection Department of the Council of Ministers which provides the operational and implementing indications of the Ordinance n.388/2016 and the types of eligible operational costs (2016)
Italy, Law on public housing (1903)
Italy, Piano Nazionale Ripresa e Resilienza aggiornato (2021), from https://www.ministeroturismo.gov.it/pnrr/
Japan, Disaster Countermeasures Basic Act (1961)
Japan, Basic Disaster Management Plan (1963)
Japan, Basic Act on Reconstruction (2011)
Japan, Basic Guidelines for Reconstruction in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake (2011)
Japan, Cabinet Office Disaster Management in Japan (n.d.). Retrieved June 24, 2022, from https://www.bousai.go.jp/1info/pdf/saigaipamphlet_je.pdf (2021)
Japan, Outline of the System of Special Zone for Reconstruction (2011)
Japan, Report to the Prime Minister of the Reconstruction Design Council in response to the Great East Japan Earthquake, Towards reconstruction ‘Hope beyond disaster’ (2011)
Japan, Act on Special Measures for the Reconstruction and Revitalization of Fukushima (2012)
Japan, Examples of Initiatives aimed at reconstruction (2013). Retrieved June 24, 2022, from https://www.reconstruction.go.jp/english/130228_Examples_of_Initiatives.pdf
USA, United States Housing Act (1937)
USA, Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Act (1988)
USA, The Homeland Security Act (2001)
USA, National Response Plan (2002)
USA, Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act (2006)
USA, The Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act (2006)
USA, National Disaster Housing Strategy (2009), from https://www.fema.gov/pdf/emergency/disasterhousing/NDHS-core.pdf
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Bratislava Law Review
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The Author(s) transfers copyright to the Article to the Publisher of the Journal by the Licence Agreement.
The Author(s) retains rights specified in the Licence Agreement.
The readers may read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of all of the Article of the Journal and use them for any other lawful purpose under specified Creative Commons Licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0).