Visual as Multi-Modal Argumentation in Law


  • Marko Novak New University, European Faculty of Law



visual argumentation, multi-modal argumentation, rhetorical argumentation, legal argumentation


Although the legal context is a formalized framework, in judicial proceedings there is also room for multi-modal argumentation. To the traditional logical mode, multi-modal argumentation theory has added three additional modes (the so-called “alternate” modes: visceral, kisceral, and emotional). They complement the logical mode in unclear legal cases, those with vague and ambiguous premises (both legal and factual). What is discussed here is visual argumentation as part of the visceral mode. Visual arguments can be appropriate in legal argumentation as evidence used to determine the lower premise. However, “thick” visuals invite alternate arguments to be applied in legal argumentation. This “invitation” is not exactly the same as with “thick” verbal texts because what is at issue are different semiotic resources.


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How to Cite

Novak, M. (2021). Visual as Multi-Modal Argumentation in Law. Bratislava Law Review, 5(1), 91–110.